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5th Dynasty

serkaf, the first king of this dynasty, had been a priest of Ra the sun-god at Heliopolis. He, and his successors throughout the 5th Dynasty, worshiped Ra, rather than Horus, as their ancestor. The title "son of the sun" began to be written before their personal name. Another name, joined with Ra, followed the title "king of upper and lower Egypt".

An ancient document, known as the Westcar papyrus, relates how three of the kings were born of a priestess of Ra. Most of them built magnificent temples, near to their pyramids, with obelisks dedicated to Ra. Of these the temple of Sahure is the best preserved and contains sculptured scenes depicting warlike expeditions by both land and sea.

The pyramid of Wenis is the latest of the 5th Dynasty and is inscribed with long ritual and magical texts.

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